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ATU-C current Tx Rate - Current download sync rate
ATU-R current Tx Rate - Current upload sync rate
SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) -This is a measure of how good your data signal is relative to the noise on the line. This should be a high number and in any case no lower than around 6 dB. If it's this low you could find the modem gets data errors or even sync problems.
Atten. (Attenuation) - Measures how much signal loss there is on the line - this should be a low number and in any case should be no more than around 60-65 dB.
Any of these numbers near or at the limits described can cause the modem to lose sync and/or have high error rates resulting in poor internet performance. This is usually due to poor cabling, interference, or a line which is near or at the distance limit of where ISP can still provide ADSL from the DSLAM.
In the above sample results, the line potential is not revealed to the end user. However, we can examine the SNR and Attenuation numbers and make an educated guess. In this case, the SNR margin is 28.0, which is much greater than the minimum of 6, and the Attenuation is 2.0, which is much lower than the maximum of 60-65. Therefore, this line would likely qualify for a speed upgrade. How much of an increase is possible cannot be known from this data, but these numbers are good indicators of what could be possible.