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TBB<->TBB calls are different in that only some control messages are sent between the ATAs and the TBB PSTN Gateways. The actual VOICE path is routed between the two ATAs through your ISP's network and the far-end connection's network. In other words, there is no TBB Gateway involved except for when you flash, hang up etc..
Since the calls (Voice path) do not use the the TBB PSTN Gateways, there are no LongDistance (Toll) charges for any calls between TBB subscribers, no matter where either of you is located - anywhere on the planet with an ISP connection!
Degraded Call Quality
Given the above, any Call Degradation issues on TBB<->TBB calls are tied to the connection from your ATA to the far-end ATA via your respective ISP networks. Hence, you need to determine what the latency/jitter is from your ATA to the other and VICE VERSA.
However, there is no of-the-shelf software to determine JITTER between two specific ATAs easily and accurately. The results of the JITTER test on your ISP connection may not reflect your actual situation for TBB<->TBB calls due to various technical reasons.A possible solution is that EACH of you can do a Ping/Traceroute to the other ATA. This may sometimes help to pinpoint where the problem lies.
EXAMPLE: Each of you should get your web IP address (www.whatismyip.com) and give it to the other person. Then do a ping and a traceroute to that address.... you may have to ensure that your computer or router will respond to the ping /traceroute.
Post your results to the TBB Forums in a new Topic for further help.