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Samba that comes with the OS does not support NTLMv2 authentication out of the box. Windows Vista by default only allows NTLMv2 authentication for SMB/CIFS shares.
To allow Vista to talk to your Mac shares, you must allow Vista to authenticate via NTLMv1:
If you have Windows Vista Home Basic/Premium:
Open the registry editor. Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa. There will be a value called LmCompatibilityLevel. Set that to DWORD 1. Reboot and try to connect again.
(source: vista64.net forums)
If you have Windows Vista Enterprise, Business, or Ultimate:
Follow the instructions at http://www.builderau.com.au/blogs/codemonkeybusiness/viewblogpost.htm?p=339270746
The above registry editing will work, but this method is easier to accomplish.
If you have a newer version of Mac OS X that has Samba ≥ version 3.0.22:
Edit the file /etc/smb.conf and add the following line to the [global] section:
client ntlmv2 auth = yes
Restart Windows File Sharing and attempt to connect again.
You can use this with earlier versions of Samba 3.0, but there are some bugs to be wary of.