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By default, Windows machines advertise their existence and their name, domain and usernames, to anything that asks, without requiring a password for this information. Your desktop configuration may not have any public shares, or all shares may be password protected, but your machine will still advertise its login name and workgroup name to anything that asks it. It may also crash if sent a netbios packet designed to exploit a bug.
nbtstat is the name of a windows command prompt program that can be used to query any machine for this information.
smbclient is the name of a Samba program that can also talk SMB.