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1. PCI slots. Peripheral Component Interconnect. Usually color coded as white.
2. AGP slot. Advanced Graphics Port. As the name implies, this is used for graphic cards that run off the AGP bus.
3. ATX motherboard power connector (Power Supply).
4. ZIF Socket. Zero Insertion Force. Where the processor goes. There are many types of sockets. Some motherboards have two sockets, which is called a Dual Processor motherboard.
5. Memory banks. Length/# of pins vary on the type of RAM the motherboard can use.
6. Chipset. (VIA, Intel, SiS, etc..)
7. Onboard controllers. Blue is IDE and the black one is Floppy. The color may change depending on the manufacturer, but they are all in the same general location and have the name right by it.
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Generally when you install a new motherboard you will need to reinstall Windows (you might get away with Repairing the installation but probably not.)