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1.2 CPU

When a CPU is reffered to being locked or unlocked, it is basically saying whether or not you can adjust the multipliers. Multipliers are the the number multiplied by the front side bus(FSB) to give you your Mhz rating, ie. 10x133 gives you 1330Mhz.

All Amd Athlon processors, except the XP are unlocked at speeds higher than 1.2Ghz. All Intel based processors have had a locked multiplier since the early Celeron's.

by BrushedTooth See Profile edited by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 12:24:42



said by overclockers:
Which Codes Mean What

To make this easy, what you need to know is listed by processor speed.

The OPN information is printed somewhere on every AMD CPU. For all Palominos, if you're looking at one, the OPN is the first code printed on the core of the CPU located in the middle of the processor. For all Thoroughbreds, the OPN the first code printed on the black area on one edge of the CPU.

This information is based on current AMD datasheets. These are subject to change, but AMD usually doesn't put new processors out before changing the datasheets.

For low-speed (i.e sub-2400+) Athlon XPs, there are two critical indicators in the OPN.

AX1700DMT3C: Voltage
AX1700DMT3C: Maximum temperature

The following codes mean the following:

Voltage

L: 1.50V
U: 1.60V
K: 1.65V
M: 1.75V

All Palominos have default voltage of 1.75V, so all Palominos have voltage code of "M." TBredAs have a default range of 1.5-1.65V. TBredBs have a default range of 1.6V-1.65V.

Maximum Temperature

T: 90C
V: 85C

All AMD processors with a rating less than 2200+ have a maximum temperature of 90C, so they're all "Ts." Anything above that has a max temp of 85C, so they're all "Vs."

Two Kinds of TBredBs

There are high-end and low-end TBredBs. They aren't all the same. The high-end ones on average perform several hundred MHz better than the low-end ones.

You can identify which type of TBredB it is by looking at code that begins the second line of coding on the processor. If you see a code like "AIUHB" that begins with the letter "A," that's a high-end TBredB.

If you see a code like "JIUCB" that begins with the letter "J," that's a low-end TBredB.

Here's how these codes translate in real life with real chips:

1700+

Palominos: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AX1700DMT3C, that's a Palomino.

TBredA: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA1700DLT3C, that's a Thoroughbred A.

TBredB: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA1700DUT3C, that's a Thoroughbred B.

If you see a code like "AIUHB" that begins with the letter "A" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a high-end TBredB.

If you see a code like "JIUCB" that begins with the letter "J" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a low-end TBredB.

As of now (1/15/03), all TBredBs sold at this speed are low-end "J" TBredBs.

1800+

Palominos: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AX1800DMT3C, that's a Palomino.

TBredA: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA1800DLT3C, that's a Thoroughbred A.

TBredB: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA1800DUT3C, that's a Thoroughbred B.

If you see a code like "AIUHB" that begins with the letter "A" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a high-end TBredB.

If you see a code like "JIUCB" that begins with the letter "J" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a low-end TBredB.

As of now (1/15/03), all TBredBs sold at this speed are low-end "J" TBredBs.

1900+

Palominos: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AX1900DMT3C, that's a Palomino.

TBredA: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA1900DLT3C, that's a Thoroughbred A.

TBredB: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA1900DUT3C, that would be a Thoroughbred B.

If you see a code like "AIUHB" that begins with the letter "A" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a high-end TBredB.

If you see a code like "JIUCB" that begins with the letter "J" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a low-end TBredB.

However, AMD's datasheets do not currently show a 1900+ TBredB, and as of now (1/15/03), there have been no sightings of any. Since both the 1800+ and 2000+ TBredBs have a default voltage of 1.60V ("U"); it's very safe to say any 1900+ TBredB will also.

2000+

Palominos: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AX2000DMT3C, that's a Palomino.

TBredA: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA2000DKT3C, that's a Thoroughbred A.

TBredA/B: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA2000DUT3C, that could be either a Thoroughbred A or Thoroughbred B. The only way to distinguish between the two is by the stepping code.

All TBredAs have a stepping code which ends in "A," like "AIUGA." All TBredBs have a stepping code which ends in "B," like "AIUGB."

There's two listed TBredA types in the AMD techdoc. One uses 1.6V, the other uses 1.65V. The TBredB is solely 1.6V.

If you've determined a CPU is a TBredB, if you see a code like "AIUHB" that begins with the letter "A" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a high-end TBredB.

If you see a code like "JIUCB" that begins with the letter "J" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a low-end TBredB.

As of now (1/15/03), there have no sighting of TBredBs, and only one sighting of a TBredA at this speed.

2100+

Palominos: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AX2100DMT3C, that's a Palomino.

TBredA/B: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA2000DUT3C, that could be either a Thoroughbred A or Thoroughbred B.

All TBredAs have a stepping code which ends in "A," like "AIUGA." All TBredBs have a stepping code which ends in "B," like "AIUGB."

If you see a code like "AIUHB" that begins with the letter "A" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a high-end TBredB.

If you see a code like "JIUCB" that begins with the letter "J" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a low-end TBredB.

As of now (1/15/03), the only sighting of 2100+ TBreds have been TBredsBs sold by Newegg the last few days, and so far, they have all been high-end TBredBs.

2200+

TBredA: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA2200DKV3C, that's a Thoroughbred A.

TBredB: If the website you're ordering from shows an order code of AXDA2200DUV3C, that's a Thoroughbred B.

If you see a code like "AIUHB" that begins with the letter "A" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a high-end TBredB.

If you see a code like "JIUCB" that begins with the letter "J" on the second line of the processor codes, that's a low-end TBredB.

2400+

Sorry, no exciting choices here (yet). They're all TBredBs, and they'll have an order code of AXDA2400DKV3C.

Yes, the DKV part is the same as for the 2200+. That's because a TBredA runs at 1.65V (that's what the "K" stands for) at 2200+. A TBredB runs at 1.6V (that's what the "U" stands for) at 2200+ and 1.65V at 2400+ and above.

As of now (1/15/03), all sightings of the 2400+ and faster CPUs have been high-end TBredBs.

2600+

These are all TBredBs, too, but just in case "which one I am getting" is getting old, the 2600+ gives you a new, different challenge: What Speed Am I Getting? There will be two 2600+s, but they'll run at different speeds. Since the 333MHz bus helps performance, AMD figured (correctly) that a CPU running at a slightly lower speed and higher bus was the same as a CPU running at a higher speed and a lower bus.

The 2600+, 266MHz version, will run at 2133MHz.

The 2600+, 333MHz version, will run at 2083MHz.

We'll no doubt see more situations like this as the number of 333MHz processors expands.

The way you tell these apart by OPN is that the 266MHz processors will always have an OPN that ends in "C," while the 333MHz processors will always have an OPN that ends in "D."




by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 12:25:30


You can find the specifications on your processor at the following web sites

Intel

Processor Specs

Specification Numbers Of Intel Processors

AMD

Processor Quick Reference

AMD Athlon, Athlon XP and Athlon MP identification

by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2005-06-15 19:42:35

Here's a guide to unlocking the L1 Bridges on a AMD Processor.

Here is an excellent in depth Guide
Unlock Your AMD XP/MP Processor

Plus this one.
Unlock Your AMD Processor

by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 12:25:46

Here is a movie that shows you how to unlock any Athlon XP/MP CPU. It's a three-minute film sequence, with a resolution of 720 x 576 pixels and stereo sound, and it comes in at only 10.9 MB. When archived as a download ZIP file, it's a mere 9.9 MB.

How to unlock your Athlon XP/MP

Feedback received on this FAQ entry:
  • all I got was music from the Link above (unlock your CPU)

    2008-02-16 15:31:56



by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 12:26:13

Burnin 101, the CPU

Burning in the CPU makes use of programs that stress the CPU of your computer. To do it right, you want to stress the CPU at higher speeds, higher voltage and cooler temperatures than the component normally runs.

First, get the following programs (click on the name for a link to the program):

Prime95
SiSoft Sandra
Toast

You can also use seti, f@h or other distributed computing programs, but you may be complicating your burnin efforts with your DC efforts. That is, if Toast crashes your computer during burnin you're out some time. If seti crashes your computer during burnin that work unit may be lost.

Setup your PC. Install the most effective cooling you can afford. Cool temperatures will give the best results.

Make sure the PC is stable at normal speed and volts. Make sure it's running cool.

Run Toast for several hours to several days. Is the stock system stable? If it is, you can start the burnin.

Increase the speed of the CPU. On AMD systems do this by increasing the multiplier. Do it one step at a time, like from 10.5 to 11. On Intel systems, increase the Front Side Bus (FSB). Do it in small steps, no more than about 5 MHz at a time.

Run Toast for 10-15 minutes. If the system doesn't crash you can begin running one of the other burnin programs.

You want to exercise all of the CPU's circuits. SiSoft Sandra's Burnin Wizard is good for this. Select ALL the tests that your system can run and setup the Wizard to loop indefinitely on these tests. Let it run for 12-48 hours.

If stable, increase the multiplier (AMD) or FSB (Intel) and re-run the Wizard.

If not stable, it's time to increase the voltage to the CPU. Increase the voltage by one increment in the BIOS, then run the Wizard as described above.

Prime95 is a good stability test. Once you've hit the maximum stable CPU speed using Sandra, try running Prime95 in torture mode. Let it run for at least 12 hours. You may find that Prime95 won't run stable at the same speed as Sandra. That's OK, just back off the CPU speed until Prime95 runs stable. Then, work the speed back up in the same way you did for Sandra.

Continue the "burnin-increase speed-burnin" cycle until you reach your goal or your maximum stable speed.

That's it! You've just graduated from CPU Burnin 101. But, there are other things that can be done to push your system even higher! Enroll in Memory Burnin 102 (coming soon) :)

by sjohnson3 See Profile edited by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-03-27 14:08:58

Read the article to find out


overclockers SUMMARY: If you see CPU temps much over 65 C, AMD tells us you're too hot.


by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 12:30:30

A stepping is a revision of silicon - to be more precise it refers to a change to the mask used to manufacture the chip. This change can for any number of different reasons: to improve bin split (frequency), to fix errata (ie. bugs), to improve yield, to solve an electrical issue and other misc. reasons.

Intel defines steppings in two forms. A letter change is a change to the complete set of masks. A number change only refers to a subset of the masks. So, A1 -> A2 is a change to just a few layers (usually metal), while B0 -> C0 is a change to all layers.

Certain stepping also may overclock better than others, and example of this the AXIA Y stepping found on Amd Athlons. This stepping enabled many users with an unlocked processor to achieve amazing speeds, and average overclock of 40% was found!

by BrushedTooth See Profile edited by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 12:30:16

All the Pentium II, III, and Celeron CPUs have a diode built into the CPU that can allow the motherboard to sense the temperature of the CPU.

The AMD Palomino CPUs now have a thermal diode built into the CPU. none of the other AMD CPUs do. Some AMD motherboards have a thermistor under the CPU that will read the CPU temp.

Your Motherboard must support this feature also. The best way to tell if it does is look in the BIOS for a CPU temp listing. You can use one of the shareware programs to see the temp in windows.

You may also want to look at calibrating your motherboard to read the proper CPU temp.

by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 12:31:17

The temperature limits as shown by AMD and Intel are the limits that the CPU can handle before it is destroyed. But this is not a guide to go by when looking for a normal operating temperatures. If your CPU were to even approach 80C it would most likely and hopefully lockup before it is destroyed.

Most CPUs under idle conditions should not be running above 50C (122F). A good temperature to aim for is 40C (104F). And as always when overclocking, the cooler the better. A cooler running CPU will last much longer, and lessens the chance of crashing the system.

A CPU is made up of transistors, when a transistor gets hot, it tends to leak current. Too much leakage can result in calculation errors, too many errors will cause a crash. More speed equals more heat. More heat equals more crashes. Better cooling means less chances of errors, less crashes and more speed .

Your motherboard temperature should be fairly close to room temperature, within 5C (9F) degrees or so. If the motherboard temperature is higher than that, try adding more case cooling.

Feedback received on this FAQ entry:
  • then why 40C is a good operating temperature

    2009-02-16 10:08:17



by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 12:31:41

A Slotket is an adapter that will allow a Socket 370 CPU to be used in a Slot 1 motherboard. This is very handy if you have one that will allow FSB or core voltage changes via jumpers on the Slotket. If you have a motherboard that does not allow the FSB or core voltage to be changed on the motherboard, you can use the Slotket to change them. The Slotket can intercept the FSB and core voltage signals from the CPU to the motherboard and change them to make the motherboard think the FSB or core voltage is higher or lower.

But, if the motherboard does have the ability to manually change the FSB and/or core voltage, the motherboard will have the final say in what settings will be used.

by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 14:15:00

The Intel Processor Frequency ID Utility will help you to identify and, in some circumstances, determine if the Intel processor is operating at the correct and rated frequency. You can find it Here

by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-02-07 12:34:53

Toast is available at www.netbetty.com/toast.zip

by FastEddie See Profile
last modified: 2004-03-03 16:31:31