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You can also find a guide with pictures here. Skip down about half way to "Tools to be used".
This is accomplished by sanding the mating surface of the heatsink (and/or the processor core itself) until it has a perfectly flat, smooth surface. Most heatsinks are not perfectly flat which will cause small air gaps between the processor core and the heatsink. This reduces the heatsink's ability to transfer heat away from the processor core.
Use waterproof sandpaper (sometimes called wet or dry) Use lots of water, the water flushes the metal particles away, keeps the sandpaper clog free.
All that is required is a flat surface (glass table works nicely), 400 and 600 grit sand paper to start, and some elbow grease. Lay the 400 grit sandpaper, grit side up, onto your work surface (glass table).
Using only the weight of the heatsink, begin sanding the mating surface of the 'sink in a "figure eight" motion. Rotate the heatsink every so often to avoid sanding in the same direction too much. Do this until a uniform reflective surface is achieved. Repeat Using finer grit sandpaper will help improve heat transfer: 1500 is certainly fine enough, but since you need to get such fine grades at an automobile parts store (it is used for finishing automobile paintwork), you might as well get a sheet each of 600, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000, an aluminum heatsink should have almost a mirror finish.
Each time you change to a finer grit, carefully wash the work surface, your hands, the heatsink, and the sandpaper. Any larger grit left when you start with a finer grade will leave visible scratches.
After the heatsink is lapped and cleaned, install in the usual way with thermal compound (Arctic Silver). Depending how flat the surface of the heatsink was to begin with, there should now be a reduction in CPU temperature.
-Artic Silver 2
-Evercool 350 Silicone
-Artic Silver 3
The temperature difference between the hot and the cold side is of about 70 degrees, with some high performance Peltiers reaching up to 120 degrees.
A good Peltier will cool significantly better than conventional heatsinks, making them better suited for overclocking. It is important to note that the heatsink of a Peltier cooler will get hotter than the heatsink of a conventional cooler, because of the heat the Peltier element produces.
Keep in mind that for the best cooling, the heatsink for a Peltier CPU cooler must handle THREE times as much heat as the CPU produces.
The heatsink is usually made out of some sort of metal, the most popular being Copper and Aluminum. The fan refers to the fan that is attached to the top of the heatsink.
Thermal paste is usually a substance that is self applied, and it much more efficient at transferring heat between the CPU core, and the heatsink. An example of such a product is Arctic Silver II, for directions on applying follow the link to ArticSilver web site in the recommended links section.
To apply thermal paste clean the CPU and HSF with alcohol (Isopropyl,the main ingredient in rubbing alcohol) and let dry. Put a very small amount of compound on the CPU die and spread it so there is a very thin and even film on the CPU. Do not put it anywhere that the CPU does not touch the HSF directly. You can use your finger, but it's better to use something that will not contaminate the compound with oils from the skin of your finger tips. A credit card or razor blade is a better.
Also look under the "Recommended Links" for the "How to Apply Arctic Silver" link.