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4 UNIX

UNIX was developed in 1971 (research project started in 1969) by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie (also the author of the programming language C) at AT&T's Bell Laboratories for use on its DEC minicomputers. First written in assembly language, then rewritten in C. When developing UNIX, they had a generic operating system in mind. They intended to develop an operating system that works with more than one manufacturer's computer system. How? The answer was using different C compilers to compile the kernel source code for different CPUs on different computers and using different device drivers for different hardware from different vendors.

UNIX is a multiuser multitasking operating system. Multiuser was implemented with time sharing, and multitasking was with event-driven.

UNIX is very powerful but not very user friendly. For UNIX to become so successful and popular it will involve a social factor, the "UNIX graduate" phenomenon. In the late 1970s, Bell gave away UNIX to many Colleges and Universities, and students became accustomed to using it. Consequently, when many of these graduates entered the work force, they began agitating for the acceptance of UNIX in the industry. The key supporters - the scientific community, the federal government, and the aerospace industry - often named UNIX in their bid specification to computer manufacturers. In fact, they said "If you want our business, you better offer a system that includes UNIX." Today UNIX runs on almost every type of computers, from the supercomputers to personal computers.

Another important factor for UNIX popularity was the Internet. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) was first implemented on BSD (Berkeley implementation of UNIX). At the early stage, the operating systems on the Internet were only UNIX. Only after TCP/IP was imported to other operating systems were they able to connect to the Internet.

by howe81 See Profile

Bell Labs in the period 1968-1969 was involved in the Multics project which was supposed to provide a convenient interactive computing service to the entire community. This OS failed because Multics could not support many users at an exorbitant cost.

During 1969 an alternative was being worked on, and in 1970 this alternative was given the name of UNIX, a pun on the name Multics since UNIX can support multiple users and multiple processes. The name was coined by Brian Kernighan.

by Zhen-Xjell See Profile edited by howe81 See Profile

UNIX has many implementations and flavors, like the AT&T's System V, University of California - Berkeley's BSD, Santa Cruz Operations very own SCO, Novell's UnixWare, Sun's SunOS/Solaris, IBM's AIX, Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, SGI's IRIX, Compaq (DEC)'s Digital UNIX, Apple's Mac OS X and Linus Torvald's Linux just to name a few.

They all follow the UNIX standards POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface).

by howe81 See Profile

AIX is an enterprise level operating system made my IBM

1) Its supporting on servers like the RS/6000 and P series
2) AIX is deisgned to run only on IBM type platforms.
3) AIX is not a "free" operating system, like OpenBSD or Linux
4) Can use more advanced software like HA/CMP from IBM

by MystBlade See Profile edited by bmn See Profile
last modified: 2003-12-15 14:22:40

In AIX the most important thing that you can be sure of is the upgrade and recent version of the Operation System:
Here I will explain how the OS is upgraded on these RS/6000 machines.

1. First you would want to check out your OSLEVEL by going to the console you wish to update and typing an OSLEVEL R this will then be displayed at 4.3.3 -10 or whatever the level is up to. *NOTE* if nothing is displayed and it gives you what it looks like an error message then your level is at 0

2. Now that you know your OSLEVEL you want to update it by the Maintenance package for this the normal procedure is just to download it from the internet VIA server. *NOTE* RS/6000 servers that WSP owns can not access the internet for security reasons. To go around this we have to do a few more steps and take a bit longer but we get there the same.

3. On a internet capable computer go to »techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/fixes once you are there, find RS/6000 and find you OS under GET FIXES for this system current as of 9/2002, you would click on AIX 4.3, then click on download maintenance package, then select your current version of OS then the OS you would like to upgrade to. *NOTE* its normally the best way to upgrade to the highest level that is available.

4. The file is anywhere from 200 MB to 400 MB, this will take some time to download about an hour or so.

5. After the file has successfully downloaded, you then want to FTP (File Transfer Protocol) it to the Server. This part can be tricky if you have not worked with FTP before. If you have a third party FTP client already start up that if not you can get one at »www.cnet.com and looked under free downloads. Or if you are familiar with dos you can use the dos FTP by typing in FTP at the dos prompt.

6. Now that you have your FTP client that you want to use, connect to the server using the Servers IP address and user name along with the password. All the IPs and User Names and Passwords are in PAGE 1 of this Guide.

7. With your FTP client up and running, and that you are in the server file system you can then drag and drop in a GUI (Graphic User Interface) or point to the file system in DOS. You can put this in any file but the suggested path is under the /USR file system, one reason it will have the most space for your huge files. And if your file is too big for the USR file system, the action that must take place is to expand it. If your transfer was successful without any memory problems then skip to step 9, if you are having memory problems proceed down to step 8

8. The absolute easiest way to expand the file system is to invoke the SMIT command, then under system management go down to system storage management, once there you want to go to file systems, then add/delete/show file systems, then Journaled File Systems, then Change / Show Characteristics of a Journaled File System. This will take you into a popup window that will display all the file systems currently mounted on the server, so select /usr. And were is says SIZE of file system (in 512-byte blocks). This is were you want to change the number. Just increase it so it can handle about 500 800 Megabits. When complete go to step 9

9. When you transfer the file you want to put it in a dir the SMIT will recognize. For this we would want to upload the fix file to /usr/sys/inst.images. This may take up to an hour depending on the file size.

10. Now that you have the file were you want it you will then want to extract the contents into the same folder that uploaded the fix. Since its in TAR format you will want to untar and unzip it by invoking (cd /usr/sys/inst.images, then gzip -d -c 4330010.tar.gz | tar -xvf -) you might then want to back up your system if you have not already. Just incase something goes wrong with the update and you lose important files.

11. Now that you UN tar a lot of files you should see a lot!! The next step is to create a table of contents for install to use, this is done by this command inutoc /usr/sys/inst.images/

12. installp -acgXd /usr/sys/inst.images bos.rte.install

13. Then Run SMIT update_all to complete the installation

14. Reboot the server and then test to see if the level is at the level that you upgraded to if so then you upgrade was successful. .

by MystBlade See Profile edited by howe81 See Profile
last modified: 2003-12-16 01:48:43

1. At the command line invoke the 'DB2START' command. This will start db2 or if db2 is already started it will say the database manager is already active.
2. In order to stop the database, issue the 'DB2STOP' command.

POSSIBLE PROBLEMS:

1. If you try and start db2 and it says root does not have authority, then that is exactly what it means. You might have set up preference for root to have db2 authorities in the .profile file. In order to do this, you need to invoke the 'SMIT' command and go to 'USERS', then change/show user characteristics. Here you will find and see down the list Admin groups, this should be set to the same admin group that your db2 instance is setup for. Now that you set the group you would need to use the 'LOGOUT' command and log back in for the settings to take effect

2. Aother other problem happens when invoking the 'db2start' command and it just hangs and staying there forever. In this case shared memory has not been set for DB2 and shared memory is required for proper operation. To do this you would issue these commands and hit enter after every space (commands are CASE SENSITIVE):

WARNING: Make sure that DB2 is stopped BEFORE proceding!

1. EXTSHM=ON
2. export EXTSHM
3. db2set DB2ENVLIST=EXTSHM

by MystBlade See Profile edited by bmn See Profile
last modified: 2003-12-16 13:13:26

Login to (or telnet to) node. (From a PC, click Start and Run. Type cmd and click OK. Type telnet node, where node is the name of the node to login to.)
Type root, depress Enter, type password, and depress Enter, where password is roots password (see node administrator for password).

2. Execute SMIT.
Type smitty at the command prompt and depress Enter.

3. Use the down arrow till you highlight Security and Users and depress Enter. Use the down arrow till you highlight Users. Depress Enter. Use the down arrow till you highlight Add a User. Depress Enter. Enter the userid in the User NAME prompt, and depress Enter, where userid is the account that you want to create. Currently, we are using the same account name as is used to logon to the mainframe. Depress Esc and 3, simultaneously, two (2) times, to repeat for other users or to exit from adding a new user.

4. Once you have entered all the new userids, use the down arrow till you highlight Change a Users Password and depress Enter. Depress Esc and 3, simultaneously, to enter more new userids passwords or to exit from changing a users password.

5. Depress Esc and 3, simultaneously, to enter the users (userids) into their proper groups. Use the down arrow till you highlight Groups and depress Enter.
Use the down arrow till you highlight Change/Show Characteristics of a Group and depress Enter. Type group in Group NAME prompt, where group is one of three (currently) categories, depending on the users access needs.

After you have added or changed users (userids) to the correct group, then depress Esc and 3, simultaneously, to exit SMIT.

6. Login to each new user account on AIX (UNIX) (using step #1). Change the account password to the same as the userid (current standard).

Feedback received on this FAQ entry:
  • I am not able to create user with username more than eight character. Please help me in creating user with more than eight character.

    2009-10-08 05:23:48



by MystBlade See Profile edited by Zuhaib See Profile
last modified: 2003-12-16 14:20:28

Alot of applications like WebSphere, Tivoli need graphic applications for installing and uninstalling. Rather than do silent installs another way is upon us if you have a command line terminal and a graphic monitor on the same network.
TO make this easy will will call CMD line terminal dummy terminal AIX/Server A
and the Graphic monitor AIX/Server B

1) on AIX/Server A you want to enter vi .profile on the command line. (I know there are other text edit programs this is just what I use) Once you are in, then you can add this line press i first to enter input mode "DISPLAY=IP ADDRESS:0.0" ***THE IP ADDRESS IS GOING TO BE THE IP OF AIX/SERVER B
2) Now save and logout by doing an ESC !wq
3) Now log off then back on SERVER A
4) Log on to Server B open up a Term window and enter this "xhost +"
5) This will disable any security so that Server A will connect to Server B when you run applications stated above on Server B screen

Enjoy

by MystBlade See Profile edited by howe81 See Profile
last modified: 2003-12-17 03:58:03