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3. What are the advantages?
With VoIP, you can talk all the time with any person you want (the requirement is that the other person has an internet connection), with no regard to distance, and you can talk with many people at the same time.
Not convinced? Consider that, at the same time, you can exchange data with people are you talking with, sending images, graphs and videos.
With normal internet protocols, you can have a network consisting of many routers (20 - 30 or more) which can result in a very high round trip time (RTT).
In addition to standard IP, VoIP uses the real-time protocol (RTP) to help ensure that packets get delivered in a timely way. Using public networks, it is currently difficult to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS). Better service is possible with private networks managed by an enterprise or by an Internet telephony service provider (ITSP).
As of this writing, VoIP is still plagued by lack of generally accepted interoperability standards.