Yes terrain matters, in the Netherlands freezing is rare (frost heaves are unknown, the soil is sandy to sandy loam, and the elevation basicly flat, with wide (post WW2) ROW to everywhere, making efficient FTTC (and eventually to the home) duct runs realitivly cheap.
Sweden has a much different climate, much varied geology, and much different population distribution, but has had (overtime, as I just explained) a much higher public investment in the infrastructure, due to the higher cost.
looking to the far east (or west from my house
) extremely high density (Hongkong, Japan, Korea) presents short large capacity, but expensive (per mile) duct runs (this is basically FTTC/basement with the building owners responsible for the delivery to residents above)
each has different costs, different subsidy, and different policy guiding it.
The US has just reach the point where we will still allow private companies to build it(rather than nationalizing the company) but we are starting to have the public (or our representitives) control the purpose (policy) and thus control the cost, scope, capability, and goal.
It took us longer because we are bigger, more diverse (geography, population, socal, and political) and the cost will be MUCH higher, and the process will be longer.