You have the Intel 1030 which has a 1x2 radio so you wont get the best speeds with that anyways. Your WIFI is not damaged, you just have the cheapest one possible. I don't even think that chip supports 5Ghz anyways:
Actually yeah it doesn't so buying a 5Ghz router wont help since your wireless can't isn't compatible. Basically you have a Honda Civic and expecting Porche performance Stickers do no make your car go faster!
You'll need either the Intel 6200 (2x2 radio) or the 6300 (3x3 radio) which might help but then again the Belkin router you have is apparently junk too. If you can buy a Netgear 3700 (those are older and cheaper now) or the Linksys E2700/3200 series you'll be doing much better.
As for interence, just remember there are plenty of other things that cause issues that wont show up in a scan on your laptop.
baby monitors, bluetooth devices, wireless keyboard/mouse/speakers, wireless doorbells, RC race cars/planes, etc.
So while you are next to the router you'll get good signal quality (strength is almost irrelevant so don't pay attention to "bars") once you step away you wont get the same speeds because it has to fight more devices to reach your laptop.