There's something called Structured Exception Handling Overwrite Protection or SEHOP. It does this by preventing attackers from being able to use the SEH overwrite technique by verifying that the threads exception handler list is intact before allowing any of the registered exception handlers to be called or executed. This mitigation technique is made possible by a side-effect of overwriting the SEH. The side-effect is that the pointer in the programs memory stack is corrupted in the process of overwriting the SEH, thus the integrity of the exception handling chain is broken.
An Exception Handler is anything that may include the use of TRY, CATCH, and FINALLY.
I did a presentation on various exploit techniques for my end of class project for my CompTIA Security+ prep class. I covered the use of EMET extensively so I had to actually do some research into how many of these attacks work on a basic level.--
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