The reason Windows wants to run CHKDSK is because the filesystem has some flags set that indicate the drive needs to be checked (usually unsafe/unclean shutdowns can cause this, but some other situations can as well).
I think this drive has some kind of mechanical problem. I've never seen a drive read all LBAs on a drive without any errors, then a few hours later begin exhibiting what you see above. The issue is not related to bad drive cache either -- it's definitely something mechanical.
My initial guess would be a misaligned head or something of that nature. Substrate problems are unlikely given the low number of power-on hours on the drive and would have shown up sooner in the drive's lifetime. There's nothing I can do aside from what I've already done WRT this drive.
My advice at this point is to RMA the drive. Don't mess around any longer with it -- just RMA it. Western Digital can/will have a fun time figuring out what's causing problems with that one.--
Making life hard for others since 1977.
I speak for myself and not my employer/affiliates of my employer.