Not just yet.
Take a look at this web page. The basis for the solutions is what is known as a UDF (User Defined Function) - which is just a macro that can be called from a formula in a cell just like built in functions.
»www.xldynamic.com/source/xld.Col ··· ter.html
Chip Pearson also has a lot of information on counting with colors: »www.cpearson.com/excel/colors.as ··· ors.aspx
Generally depending on colors to get a count of something is not a great idea. Colors are generally thought of as just to make something look nice, or perhaps to bring notice of something to a viewer. But Excel has yet to be set up to count by color - although it keeps getting closer, since now you can filter data by color (and then get a SUBTOTAL() of the filtered results as noted on the one page).
And if it's conditional formatting colors you're trying to delve into - forget the colors, do the counting using the same type of test that you used to do the conditional formatting.--
...then THINK! again.